The Diocese of Jefferson City

A Case Study of Clergy Sexual Abuse

Thursday, October 10, 2013

Childproof 44: Be It a Sin to Covet Honor Archbishop John C. Nienstedt?


Page 44


Dear Bishop Gaydos:
John C. Nienstedt
Archbishop
St. Paul-Minneapolis

According to William Shakespeare, Henry V
pondered this question late in the night
awaiting dawn to break at Agincourt:

Be it a sin to covet honor?

History supports the outcome of this English epic to the credit of the monarch among the fields of France.  The playwright provides
the psychological analysis in its emotional
context of the drama of human struggle
in remarkable circumstances.


John C. Nienstedt, archbishop of St. Paul-
Minneapolis, appears to disagree, unable
to decipher “covet” or comprehend the
irony of the quotation in full:


“If it be a sin to covet honour, I am the most
offending soul alive.”

The latest turn of events in the pedophile priest scandal unfolding in the Archdiocese of St. Paul-Minneapolis, Minn., is a start contrast to the antique struggle in medieval France.

Henry V found honor in doing the right thing.  Archbishop
Nienstedt, a pathetic specter, skulks in the shadows.  V
ictims of
clergy sexual abuse in Minnesota have undertaken in the last
10 years to report the facts and expose the deceit in this
particular case.
 
Harry J. Flynn
Archbishop-Emeritus
St. Paul-Minneapolis
1995-2008

When we first entered this fray in Minnesota
more than a decade ago, we were confident
in the in the knowledge that the scale of
deceit in the Twin Cities was no less than
that discovered in Boston.  Time has proven
us to be correct.
 
Archbishop Harry J. Flynn — and his
predecessor, John R. Roach, archbishop
1975-1995 — led a cabal as wicked as
that manufactured by Bernard Cardinal
Law.  Nienstedt, a protégé of Adam
Cardinal Maida of Detroit, continues
to operate the paradigm he learned
in Michigan, practiced in New Ulm
and merge it with the Minnesota
strategic plan.


The key element of this scandal is the fact that Boston is at the center of media universe and exposure of these sordid details can be expedited more easily.  But Roman Catholic Church management in Midwestern and rural dioceses enjoys a protective buffer of political muscle and bully-boy resources to keep dark secrets from prying eye.

We are fascinated now watching Flynn’s successor attempt to further explain away the pedophile mindset and predator culture championed for so long by the executive leadership of the archdiocese for at least 30 years if not longer.  Nienstedt, who wraps himself in a blanket of virtue and morality to attack those supporting marriage equality and fabricate an assault on religious liberty, has become as an energetic proponent of the Church’s child molestation cover-up. 

John R. Roach
Archbishop-Emeritus

St. Paul-Minneapolis
1975-1995
We suspect his actions as bishop of New Ulm
and an auxiliary in Detroit will offer little
comfort to
those interested in justice, honesty,
and transparency.  And we will have more to
say about this matter.

Until then, we suggest that Nienstedt review Trembling at the Reckoning by Belinda Martinez, which follows below.

Ms. Martinez developed the first database
chronicling the culture of clergy sexual
abuse in Minnesota.  Her 2004 report —
comprehensive to that point in time —
is a foundational and fundamental
document:  a record of the abuse of
children and vulnerable adults and the
failure to resolve matters justly and
restore those so horribly wronged by
ordained sexual predators.


Ten years on, Archbishop Nienstedt should acknowledge
these facts.


He might begin by reconsidering some missed opportunities:
the
Rev. Daniel Christopher Conlin is one example for consideration.


Edward F. Fox
Chairman

Clergy Review Board
St. Paul-Minneapolis
2004
Archbishop Flynn and the Rev. Kevin
McDonough — vicar general, 1991-2008
were notified officially about Conlin
on 29 September 2004 when he was
transferred from St. Columba to the
rectory at the Cathedral of St. Paul
and the marriage tribunal.  Ms. Martinez,
as survivor liaison for the Minnesota
Chapter of SNAP (MNSNAP), and I, as
public policy advisor drafted the letter
and mailed it to Nienstedt’s predecessor.
In addition to Archbishop Flynn and
Father McDonough, the recipients of
this information were:  William Fallon,
Chancellor; Edward F. Fox, Chairman
of the Archdiocesan Child Abuse Review
Board and a partner in the law firm of Oppenheimer,
Wolff, & Donnelly, LLP (now a partner at Bassford
Remele) ; Phyllis Willerschiedt, Coordinator-Survivors
Office; Christopher Leifeld, Executive Director,
Minnesota Catholic Conference; and Father Conlin.

We find it interesting that a man taken in adultery should find a safe haven at the core of the archdiocese administration even within the confines of the marriage tribunal.  We find it sad that a manager who used his power to co-opt a subordinate would be protected with impunity.

Kevin M. McDonough
Vicar General
St. Paul-Minneapolis
1991-2008
We are not amazed that the Church would
close a school to cover up a transgression
so volatile.  We are not surprised that the
Church would counsel the woman and
husband to accept the unborn child
and reconcile.
 
We are not surprised that the power and
arrogance of bishop and priest is whittled
away by time and the truth.  We are not
surprised that bishop and priest should
consider honor a sin.
 
Ms. Martinez offers a treasure to clergy
abuse victims and their supporters:  a
gift unacknowledged and repudiated by the leadership of the Roman Catholic hierarchy.  But, perhaps, you, Bishop Gaydos, can offer some advice to your Minnesota colleague.  After all, you share the same sympathies, which allow the pedophile mindset and culture of abuse to flourish.

 

http://webzoom.freewebs.com/cometothestable/Trembling_to_the_Reckoning_2004.pdf


Trembling to the Reckoning:  Executive Summary

Table of Contents

Page 2     Acknowledgements

Page 3     Preface

Page 5     Executive Summary

Page 6     Minnesota Meditation

Page 7     Abbreviations

Page 8     Minnesota’s Religious Sexual Offenders

Page 9     Where Did They Serve?

Page 10    Sexual Offenders and Their Respective Assignments


Page 11    Statistical Summary

Page 13    Recommendations
Page 16    Conclusion
Page 17    Appendix I
Page 32    Appendix II
Page 46    Appendix III
Page 60    End Notes

Acknowledgements

To Michael Wegs, the editor of this document and my co-founder of the Minnesota chapter of the Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests, I’m glad you are alive!  Your wit and conversation has buoyed me up.

To A. W. R. Sipe, thank you for your input and encouragement.  I received an abundance of both.  You are a treasure.  My heartfelt thanks also, for going the extra mile to help me in San Diego when I needed it the most.

To Gary Schoener, thank you for your kindness, conversation, and perspective.  Kindness heals what medicine cannot.  Kindness teaches what books cannot.  Kindness speaks what words cannot.

To Tom Doyle, thank you for teaching so many how to question authority for the sake of innocence and righteousness.  Thank you for ‘getting it.’  Thank you for your diligence and compassion.  Thank you . . . for the chemo monkey.  You earned the yellow ribbon. 

To Jeffrey Anderson and your staff at Jeff Anderson & Associates, thank you for your trust, respect, and your boundless energy.  You have set the bar high for integrity.  My deepest thanks also, for giving an angel the ‘wings’ she needed to leave her footprints in the sand.

To survivors of sexual misconduct, I work for you.  I owe you all a debt of immense gratitude for your compassion, your candor, and your courage.  You inspire me.  This report was dedicated to you long before I typed this page.  It was dedicated to you as I read your e-mail messages and listened to you on the phone.  It was dedicated to you while I combed through newspaper articles detailing your stories.  It was dedicated to you as I spent hundreds of hours in the sub-basement of a metropolitan library researching your perpetrators.  To those who have yet to break your silence, this is dedicated to you in hopes that one day soon you will feel safe enough to come forward.  While you wait for that time, never trade hope for despair.

To B. C. P., I hope you got a room with a view  .  .  .  . 

The leadership of the Archdiocese of St. Paul-Minneapolis was apprised of the Rev.
Daniel C. Conlin matter on 29 September 2004.  The recipients of this information
were:  Archbishop Harry J. Flynn; the Rev. Kevin M. McDonough, Vicar General;
William Fallon, Chancellor; Edward F. Fox, Chairman of the Archdiocesan Child
Abuse Review Board and a partner at the law firm of Oppenheimer, Wolff, &
Donnelly, LLP (now a partner at Bassford Remele) ; Phyllis Willerschiedt,
Coordinator-Survivors Office; Christopher Leifeld, Executive Director,
Minnesota Catholic Conference; and Father Conlin.

Preface

From my position as a survivor of sexual abuse by Roman Catholic clergy, I enjoy a rather interesting freedom of speech and thought.  Civil, moral, and ethical codes notwithstanding, I answer only to my Maker, my curiosity, and my anxious need to matter.  At any given moment, I’m not sure which of the previous are the most rigorous to follow.  In the instance of this report, certainly my curiosity and my need to matter directed my work.

In 2002, the Catholic world in the United States received a wake-up call in the form of all global media disclosures of the clergy sexual abuse scandal breaking early in the year and continuing relentlessly today.  Like many other people, I was glued to the newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet, reviewing reports about something with which I was all too familiar:  sexual abuse by Catholic religious figures who were entrusted with the spiritual care of those in their congregations. 

Unlike some victims/survivors who watched and listened at that time, I never felt any of my old wounds opening up.  Though I felt bitter sadness for the numbers of new folks breaking their silence, I was encouraged by another round of publicity, the opportunity to meet others who knew what I had known for a long time, and the hope that this time more lay people would pay attention.

Along with this necessary and overdue cleansing, I also felt that an accounting was in order with specific regard to the past sexual crimes that had been covered up by the hierarchy.  Toward that end, and with either arrogance, confidence, or a healthy combination of both, I wrote to Pope John Paul II.  Among other things in this correspondence, I requested that the names of ALL clergy, formerly or presently accused of being involved in criminal acts, be released so that this sin of secrecy would not continue.  I also asked Pope John Paul II to identify publicly all locations/assignments so that congregations worldwide could heal and neighborhoods and communities could establish safeguards to prevent or reduce the occurrence of future abuse.  I sent my letter in April of 2002, prior to the United Stated cardinals traveling to Rome to meet with the pontiff.
 
Not surprisingly, I received no response from the Vatican.

Robert J. Carlson, archbishop of St. Louis, Mo., honed his craft in the Twin Cities
helping Archbishop John R. Roach shield numerous pedophile priests.  These 1983
memoranda indicate that Carlson recommended that Roach compromise the child
victim and his family and offer leniency and a transfer to the sexual predator: the
Rev. Lee D. Krautkremer.  Carlson also protected other pedophile priests in the
Archdiocese of St. Paul-Minneapolis including two of the most notorious: the
Rev. Thomas Adamson and the Rev. James Porter.
 
I was quite certain that I wanted specific historical information about sexual abuse by Catholic religious in Minnesota.  Public disclosure of this information would afford people the opportunity to be as concerned as I was about the welfare of so many innocent people who had their faith, religious traditions, innocence, and trust used as bait for hideous crimes.  I wanted people who had not been directly affected by sexual crimes, to know what had been hidden from them for so long. 

In May 2002, I turned my attention to the Ad Hoc Committee on Sexual Abuse of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.  I wrote a round of letters to each member outlining several requests, again explicitly asking that the names of perpetrators be released, and assignment information for each perpetrator be made openly available to every parish or location in their history.
 
Again, my request was ignored.  I waited with hope that the right steps would be taken toward honesty, and when they were not, I began to dig in and do it myself. 

Since I knew right from the start what kind of picture I was trying to paint, the scope of my project was already well defined.  What follows is really a collection of data, some tabulation thereof, which should vindicate every victim who has ever come forward in Minnesota to speak their truth about the sexual crimes committed against them. 

The problem is bigger than one victim, though it is still individual victims who suffer, tremble, and go the way alone until they sense an atmosphere in which it feels safe to come forward.  When that happens, it is no longer the victims who need tremble.  It is those who hold much more power and authority who will be brought to their knees for their part in the blight that has infested the Catholic Church.
 

They will come trembling to the reckoning of
their sins, and their crimes, 
confronting them,
will accuse them.
                                      
            Wisdom 5:11

 
Trembling to the Reckoning:  Executive Summary
As much as this report about religious sexual abuse in Minnesota is my individual effort, its importance stems from my affiliation with various organizations focused on survivors of sexual abuse.  Such a common bond nearly precludes the need for introductions when survivors meet other survivors face to face for the first time.  It is the gathering of survivors that vanquishes shame, helps reshape a more positive future for the abused, and extends a hand of Hope where there has been so much despair. 

Though this report is a collection of quantifiable data, the heart of the matter is each individual story.  What was stolen from victims can only be superficially assessed and never really repaid.  I believed it before I began this project and know it for certain as I come to its conclusion. 

Lost childhoods can never be graphed.  Nightmares and lifetime sentences of prescription medications are impossible to tabulate.  Tarnished grief or interrupted grace cannot be represented by a pie chart.  The most shocking statistics and percentages can never tell the full story.  But the numbers are a good place to begin. 

Ninety-nine names of predator priests and religious in positions of authority, trust, and respect in three hundred and two Minnesota assignments somehow seems meager after seven and a half months of work.  It isn’t: especially not to the victims of the perpetrators named herein.  But I don’t want to give a false sense of security to those sexual offenders who may still be holding their breath as they scan the list of names.  Of those parish assignments still remaining open, one hundred and fourteen are affiliated in some fashion with a parochial school.  The access to children alone should shock the reader. 

The groove is cut deeper than that, however.  Marriage preparation, grief support, coming of age, spiritual guidance, education, leisure, and physical, mental and emotional vulnerability have all been the mechanisms of access to prey upon victims and perpetuate evil.  Lies, stonewalling, denial, blaming the victims, and outrageous amounts of money have been the mechanisms by which the discovery of evil has been delayed.  Youth camps, retreat centers, altars, rectories, confessionals, offices, and boarding schools have become crime scenes and I doubt that the Christ of the manger, the Christ of the New Testament, the Christ of love would tolerate what those who stand in His place have allowed to continue. 

Each individual diocese could have provided the information included in this report.  They should have provided it.  It would have taken less time, effort, and expense to do so.  They were asked and did not respond.  Perhaps now they will.


Minnesota Meditation
As I stand upon the summit
And look out across the plain,
I can see the north woods weeping.
I can feel the prairie pain.

œ

Cargo ships moored in the harbor
Aren’t enough to haul away
All the nightmares from the abbey
Or the places children play.

œ

I can hear the villa echo
With the whisperings of sin.
So I turn my gaze to Heaven,
Wondering where you will begin.

œ

If you seek to heal the wounded,
You must first cast danger out.
If you seek to change the falsehoods,
You must first remove the doubt.

œ

If you seek a new allegiance,
We must make our goals the same.
And you cannot sing your ‘Amen’
’Til you’ve called us all by name.
                  Belinda Martinez2

 

Abbreviations

C             Diocese of Crookston
D             Diocese of Duluth
NU           Diocese of New Ulm
SC            Diocese of St. Cloud
SPM          Diocese of St. Paul/Minneapolis
W             Diocese of Winona
M.S.F.      Congregation of the Missionaries of the Holy Family
O.M.I.      Oblates of Mary Immaculate (Oblates)
O.P.         Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
O.S.B.      Order of St. Benedict (Benedictines)
O.S.C.      Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross
                (Crosiers or Crosier Fathers)
O.S.U.      Ursaline Sisters of the Roman Union (Ursalines)
S.S.C.       Society of St. Columban (Columbans or
                Columban Missionaries)

S.S.N.D.    School Sisters of Notre Dame (Notre Dame
                Sisters/Nuns)

T.O.R.      Third Order Regulars of St. Francis (Franciscans)
CS            A series of confidential sources that will not
                be divulged

N/A          Not available
NRT         Name Removed Temporarily
U             Unknown
 

Minnesota’s Religious Sexual Offenders

I believe that naming the names of Minnesota’s religious sexual offenders is a high priority for Catholics and the public at large.  But it is first necessary to identify these sexual predators.  As an interested party, I have collected and filed media reports, articles, and stories, both print and electronic forms, related to this issue. 

My initial collection was meager and inadequate, but I have now supplemented this information by accessing online archives3 of Minnesota newspapers to document sexual misconduct of clergy and religious in our state.  The database I used has 230 newspaper titles available for search purposes, which allowed me to concentrate on Minnesota publications4.

As I read through the news stories, I noted the names of perpetrators, details of the each incident, and the actions being taken.  From those notes, I was able to develop a database of Minnesota perpetrators5.

Several factors, though, limited the results of the online database:

1.)    The search headings used, though I tried many

2.)    Archive constraints within the database — 1986
      being furthest back
I could research online

3.)    Index terms under which a particular story may
      have been archived

4.)    Deadline for names to be included in this
      report — February 27, 2004


The list of Minnesota’s sexual offenders is NOT exclusive to sexual abuse of minors.  Sexual exploitation of vulnerable adults is a felony in Minnesota and it is time the Church answers publicly to these victims.  Also included are the names of perpetrators of other types of sexual misconduct, such as possession of child pornography, indecent exposure, or lewd behavior. 

My database resources also provided references to a handful of incidents involving abuse by nuns, or non-clergy crimes committed within a Catholic religious setting.  I have tabulated this information as well; and these statistics are included the final accounting of criminal sexual conduct that the bishops have attempted to conceal. 

Where Did They Serve?

Knowing who the perpetrators are is simply not enough information to establish an historical perspective of the sexual abuse scandal as it relates to Minnesota.  I believe that the complacency of the Catholic laity regarding this matter is directly correlated to the failures of Minnesota’s bishops (and their political lobby, known as the Minnesota Catholic Conference).  They have covered up as many incidents as possible and withheld as much information from the civil authorities as well.  Certainly more people would be alarmed if they knew that a perpetrator had served in a parish/institution/assignment in their community.  I believe that the members of those communities have a right to know. 

The Official National Catholic Directory6 documents individual assignments for priests as well as other pertinent parish, diocesan, or religious orders information.  I have collected the service histories for the offenders on the list developed in Phase One.  I have noted the names of Minnesota cities, parishes/institutions, respective dioceses, and the number of identified perpetrators assigned to each site.  As many of the assignments as possible have been included in the history of the identified perpetrators.  In the instance of possible confusion due to multiple priests with the same name, including middle initials, I did not include information for those years.  The directories also have errors and inconsistencies that prohibit absolute assurance of accuracy in individual histories.  The information gathered in Phase Two is reflected in its respective database7.

While collecting the service history data, I noticed an alarming number of duplications to some parishes, so a number noting the frequency, if more than one, has been included in the table.

Actual individual service histories have not been included in this report, but will be provided upon request.  Service histories for non-clergy offenders were not collected. 

Sexual Offenders and Their Respective Assignments

As the survivor liaison for the Minnesota Chapter of the Survivors Network for those Abused by Priests (MNSNAP), I have taken well over three hundred phone calls in the last seventeen months (MNSNAP was established in August 2002).  Many of these calls are from victims whom I have already met; they just wanted to check in with me about the status of our volunteer, self-help group. 

Some callers, however, are victims who have yet to come forward with their own stories, but want information about either their hometown parish, or a specific sexual offender.  Immediately after we launched MNSNAP here in Minnesota, I knew that somewhere down the line, this report would be as beneficial a resource to them as the list of mental health professional I had developed for referral purposes. 

Aside from naming perpetrators and the numbers of assignments affected across Minnesota, it was also necessary to be readily able to name exactly which offender had served a particular city in Minnesota.8

Statistical Summary
The final phase of this research project is the tabulation of information I collected and then, to draw a useful statistical picture of the religious sexual abuse problem from a Minnesota perspective.  Though there may be bleaker pictures in other parts of the country, Minnesota is my home and, consequently, victims living in Minnesota or people who were victimized here are MNSNAP’s primary concern and the survivors with whom I have the most contact.

Of the 99 alleged clergy offenders named in this report, there were 63 diocesan priests.  Perpetrators affiliated to Orders were as follows: 

n  M.S.F.          1
n  O.M.I.          1
n  O.P.             2
n  O.S.B.        15
n  O.S.C.        11
n  S.S.C.           1
n  T.O.R.          4
n  Unknown       1

Of the 99 sexual offenders named, four had assignments as military chaplains at one time or another.  One priest/perpetrator served in each of the following branches:  United States Air Force; United States Army; United States Navy; and United States Coast Guard. 

Of the non-clergy sexual offenders named in this report, there were five cases of sexual abuse by nuns noted and the affiliation to Orders is as follows:
 
n  S.S.N.D.         3
n  O.S.U.           1
n  Unknown       1
 
For the 99 priest/perpetrators named in this report, 302 parishes or assignments across Minnesota were affected.  Of those parishes remaining open, at least 114 are affiliated with an elementary parochial school.  There are also high schools and post-secondary schools that were served by offending clergy. 

An exact percentage of parishes served by offending clergy is extremely difficult to calculate due to closings, consolidations, or name changes, which may not have been noted. 

The way a particular parish was counted in the Official National Catholic Directory is also a determining factor as well as a few incomplete service histories of individual offenders. 

But, the following general approximations can be made for comparative purposes:
 
n  Diocese of Crookston:  26% of the parishes were served
                                       by sexual offenders;

n  Diocese of Duluth:       24% of the parishes were served
                                      by sexual offenders;

n  Diocese of New Ulm:    44% of the parishes were served
                                      by sexual offenders;

n  Diocese of St. Cloud:    26% of the parishes were served
                                      by sexual offenders;

n  Diocese of SPM:            45% of the parishes were served
                                      by sexual offenders;

n  Diocese of Winona:       35% of the parishes were served
                                        by sexual offenders.

 
Retirement Pay
The total number of years that perpetrator priests were supported by diocesan retirement dollars, as documented in their service histories, is as follows: Diocese of Crookston, 24 years; Diocese of Duluth, 3 years; Diocese of New Ulm, 36 years, Diocese of St. Cloud, 21 years; Archdiocese of St. Paul & Minneapolis, 46 years, and Diocese of Winona, 19 years.  The total number of years Minnesota Catholics have supported sexual offenders identified in this report is 149 years.  I hope that will be considered the next time an appeal for donations comes from individual dioceses.  The retirement years for those affiliated with Orders were not generally noted. 

The day after my deadline for including names of perpetrators in this report, I received 29 additional names. 

Recommendations
In many ways, the problem of religious sexual abuse can be addressed with a very simple framework.  Ironically, and perhaps rather naively, I would still like to think that turning to the gospels and living by the guidelines set therein is the answer.  It hasn’t been successful, however, even after 2000 years.  The strategic plan that SNAP has offered the Catholic bishops, for example, is a corrective management accountability framework. Archbishop Harry J. Flynn and the bishops of Minnesota ought to embrace this proposal for the safety of our most vulnerable citizens, as well as the protection of our faith:
 

          1.)      Support the extension of limitations affecting
  the sexual abuse of children and vulnerable
  adults. As victims have slowly, painfully made
  the decision to take their cases to court, the
  church has used these statutes as a weapon
  to bar the door to religious sexual offenders.
 

          2.)      Hold the bishops accountable. It is now
  clear that the American hierarchy not
   only willingly chose to conceal records
  of abuse from parishioners and the civil
  authorities, but also engaged in trafficking
  predators from parish to parish and even
  from diocese to diocese (Palm Beach, Fla.,
  Phoenix, Ariz.; Santa Fe, N.M; and Amarillo,
  Texas, have been identified via media reports
  and legal actions, and data included in this
  report indicts dioceses in MN as well).  As
  prosecutors file charges, they should consider
  bishops as co-conspirators, or even principals,
  based upon their willful involvement in
  concealing criminal activity.
 

          3.)      The judiciary and state legislatures should
  revise employment and criminal statutes
  that allow the hierarchy to escape punishment.
 

          4.)      State legislatures must revise charitable-
  immunity laws, such as Massachusetts’,
  which may make it impossible for any
  survivor/victim to recover more than
  $20,000 at the settlement phase of
  litigation. These laws, enacted to protect
  the charitable activities of religious
  organizations, schools, and social-service
  agencies, have too often created an
  unbreachable wall behind which the
  hierarchy continues to hide.

          5.)      Turn over all criminal allegations to the
  police and prosecutors.
 

          6.)      Swiftly, severely, and publicly discipline any
  church staff member who is discovered to
  have kept quiet about questionable behavior.
 

          7.)      Revise privacy laws to exempt pedophile
  allegations and force the hierarchy to open
  personnel records to the civil authorities
  when  a crime is reported.

          8.)      Confessed sexual offenders must be tried
  and sentenced in a court of law. The Church
  must expel priests, deacons, and monks from
  ministry just as teachers, doctors, lawyers
  are not permitted to continue their profession
  when convicted of pedophile crimes.

          9.)      Appoint MNSNAP members to clergy sexual
  abuse committees.

      10.)      Attend MNSNAP meetings on a regular basis
  to provide pastoral care to  survivors/victims.

      11.)      Conduct listening sessions with MNSNAP
  members in ALL parishes where a sexual
  predator has served. The underlying issue
  of clergy sex crimes for Catholics, in particular,
  is that the abuse is also equated with incest.
  Incest destroys the fidelity of family life:
  most relatives do not believe the victim;
  some feel sympathy but are unable to accept
  the truth; and maybe one or two  relatives
  believe. This issue is like lead paint or asbestos.
  The debris must be removed before the restoration
  can begin.

      12.)      Review annually with the laity significant information
  regarding administrative and financial protocol and
  records. As “shareholders” Roman Catholics deserve
  a “plain English annual report” that details the
  financial and business activities of their own diocese.
  The bishops have demonstrated that they cannot be
  trusted to protect the lay members in their care. 
 
They should not have sole access to the diocesan
  investment portfolio, which many consider as their
  own private piggy bank.

      13.)      Publish MNSNAP meeting schedules in all parish
  bulletins, diocesan publications, and on church
  websites.

      14.)      Designate Abuse Prevention Sunday, in which every
  priest educates parents about the need to talk with
  their children about how to protect themselves and
  what to do if someone ** tries to molest them.

      15.)      Provide written materials in all churches and schools
  about “safe touch” and abuse prevention strategies
  for parents.

      16.)      Publicly urge victims to report their abuse to civil
  and criminal authorities (instead of or in addition
  to church officials).

      17.)      Encourage and support the publication of survivors’
  writings, journals, and collected stories, as well
  as survivor research.

      18.)      Regularly invite local survivors to make presentations
  at diocesan training conferences for priests and laity
  to promote the exchange and collaboration of
  information and ideas.

      19.)      Regularly invite local survivors to make presentations
  to seminarians to support the development and
  formation of their vocations.

      20.)      Every state bishop should publish an honest pastoral
  letter about the sexual abuse crisis in his diocese.

      21.)      Publicly restore the good names of ALL victims who
  have brought forward credible allegations of sexual
  crimes, whether directly, by virtue of their explicit
  permission, or indirectly by exonerating them in a
  message of gratitude for doing the right thing.

Conclusion
The goal of this report is to provide factual information as an historical basis for us to understand the scope and nature of the sexual abuse crisis in Minnesota.  Consequently, we are able to shape our understanding of the larger picture and to fashion our responsibilities according to our community values and religious heritage.  While the behavior from the hierarchy remains largely confrontational, I believe that the gaping wound can’t be healed until the full extent of the damage has been assessed.  This assessment will not be completed until all names are named, all parishes are fully informed and engaged in the healing process; and victims are called forth and welcomed to break their silence without fear of threats or reprisals for the telling the truth about what has happened to them. 

The intent of this report is not to widen the chasm between these factions.  It is an attempt to invite all parties to an honest dialogue about these faith-altering issues.  It has not been enough to isolate a particular group of offenders or victims and think that these problems have been addressed.  Many more layers need to be exposed. 

Parishes are neighborhoods.  To harbor a sexual offender or allow one to remain in service not only puts congregations, but also neighborhoods and in many cases, entire towns at risk.  Communities of worship are faith families and the damage done by a sexual predator is more than a wound to one.  It also tears the family apart and isolates the one who was victimized.  It is time for the entire family to participate in the healing. 

I am a survivor of religious sexual abuse.  I will be okay.  I choose to keep the hierarchical structures that permitted my abuse, covered it up, and then denied it, at arm’s length.  But arm’s length does not mean out of sight.  There is still much to do.  As soon as I type the last word – the next report will have already begun, and the phone will continue to ring. 

I still pray.  I always have and always will.  I pray that I may find the way I can help the most and then I go to work.  In the course of that work, I am confronted with many things that call me back to prayer. 

I pray that Minnesota’s victims of religious sexual abuse can heal.  I pray that the Catholic community will now, more than ever before, speak up and demand better from those who have been in authority. 

I pray that those who still keep painful secrets do not add their names to the growing list of sacrificial lambs, but rather to the growing list of my colleagues who are learning to look ahead with Hope!


 Endnotes
1The Jerusalem Bible, Doubleday & Company, INC., Garden City, N.Y.,
   Book of Wisdom 5: 1

2Whispers in a Minor Key, Unpublished collected works of Belinda Martinez
3America’s Newspapers, News Bank Inc., www.infoweb.newsbank.com,
   (August, 2003 – March, 2004)

4Duluth News-Tribune, St. Cloud Times, St. Paul Pioneer Press, Star Tribune
5Appendix I
6The Official National Catholic Directory, P. J. Kennedy and Sons,
   New Providence, N. J., 1911-2003

7Appendix II
8Appendix III




Appendix I:  Alleged/Admitted Sexual Misconduct (Catholic/Religious) - Minnesota



 
Name &
   Diocese
 

Allegation
or Action


Assignment at
Time of Abuse

City


Source
 Adamson,
 Thomas Paul
 SPM
 W
Sexual abuse
28 victims
9 lawsuits
St. Thomas Aquinas
Immaculate Conception
St Adrian
St. John
St Francis
Lourdes High School
St. Paul Park
Columbia Heights
Adrian
Caledonia
Rochester
Star Tribune
1/21/88
12/8/90
4/13/02
Pioneer Press
4/14/88
CS-2:11, CS-2:12
CS-2:14, CS-2:15
CS-2:31, CS-2:33
 Bates,
 Christopher
 SPM
Sexual abuse
Multiple victims
Suits
St. Xavier
Buffalo
Court File
CS-V
CS-2:17,
CS-2:33
 Bennett, Andre
 SC
O.S.B.
On restriction
Alleged abuse
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
St. Cloud Times
0/7/02
10/2/02
 Bernauer,
 James F.
 C
Sexual exploitation
St. John
Immaculate Conception
St. Theodore
Akeley
Nevis
La Porte
CS-1:2
CS-2:14
 Blanchard,  
 Kirby R.
 D
Sexual abuse
St. Anthony
Duluth
CS-2:19
 Blumeyer,  
 Robert P.
 SC
 SPM
O.S.B.
Sexual abuse
St. Elizabeth Ann Seton (formerly St. Boniface)
Hastings
CS-2:37
 Boerboom.
 Henry
 SPM
Sexual abuse
St. Vincent
Osseo
CS-V
 Boyd,
 Richard
 C

Child Pornography
St. Mary
St. Joseph
Fosston
Bagley
Duluth News Tribune
8/31/03
 Brom,
 Robert H.
 D
 W
Bishop
San Diego, Calif.
1989-2013
Bishop_Duluth
1983-1989
Settled Allegation,
$100K (est.)
Denied wrongdoing,
citing no evidence
 
Duluth
Boston Globe
3/22/02
 Bussman,
 John J.
 SPM
Sexual exploitation
Muliple Victims
Sacred Heart
Mary Queen of Peace
St. Martin
St. Walburga
Robbinsdale
Rogers
Hassan Township
Fletcher
Pioneer Press
3/19/04
Star Tribune
3/19/04
CS-V
 Carriere,
 Henry G.
 C
Multiple victims
St. Joseph
Fertile
CS-1:2
CS-2:36
 Chateauvert 
 Victor
 D
M.S.F.
Sexual abuse
Convicted.  Sentenced
6 months.
Holy Family
Bull Dog Lake
Pioneer Press
2/23/93
CS-2:25
 Clark,
 Robert P.
 NU
 SPM
Sexual Abuse
Holy Trinity
Winsted
CS-V
 Connoly,
 Isaac
 SC

O.S.B.
Sexual abuse
On leave
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
St. Cloud Times
7/6/03
 Curtis,
 William D.
 W
Sexual abuse
St. Theresa
Mapleton
CS-2:26
 Dalheimer, 
 Cosmos R.
 SC
 SPM
O.S.B.
On restriction
Alleged abuse
Multiple victims
St. John’s Abbey
St. Bernard
Collegeville
St. Paul
KSTP-TV Transcript
9/10/02
St. Cloud Times
10/2/02
CS-2:6, CS-2:10
CS-2:37
 Dean, Mark
 D
 SC
O.M.I.
Sexual exploitation
St. Thomas Aquinas
International Falls
CS-R
 Dempsey, 
 Dennis K.
 SPM
Sexual Exploitation
St. Michael
St. Michael
CS-2:20
 DeSutter, 
 Gilbert J.
 SPM
Settled
Alleged abuse
St Williams
St. Michael
Fridley
Prior Lake
Star Tribune
7/2/99
Pioneer Press
5/26/02
CS-2:8
 Dinya,
 Patrick J.
 SPM
Sued
Alleged abuse of woman & “retarded” girl
St. Leo the Great
St. Paul
Star Tribune
6/20/91
CS-1:2
 Dudley,
 Paul V.
 SPM
Allegations, abuse of 3 children
Church investigator found no evidence
Annunciation
Our Lady of the Catholic Church
Minneapolis
Mound
Star Tribune
5/8/02
2/13/03
 Eckroth, 
 Richard
 SC
O.S.B.
Suits Settled
Alleged abuse, boys and girls
On restriction
St. Augustine’s
St. Cloud
Star Tribune
5/12/02
Pioneer Press
5/12/02
CS-2:37
 Eidenschink, 
 John A.
 SC
O.S.B.
On restriction
Abuse, admission
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
Star Tribune
5/9/02
CS-2:39
 Emon, Neil
 SC
O.S.C.
Multiple victims
Credible claims
Living on restriction
Admission of abuse
Crosier Seminary & Prep School
Onamia
Star Tribune
6/16/02
 Ferguson, 
 Alphonsus
 SPM
S.S.C.
Sexual abuse of minors
Guardian Angels
Hastings
CS-V
 Frost, Edmond
 SPM
O.P.
Sexual abuse
Multiple victims
Suit
St. Albert the Great
Minneapolis
CS-1:3
CS-2:15
CS-2:16
CS-2:32
 Funcheon, 
 Gerald A.
 SC
 SPM
O.S.C
Allegations,
suit filed
Previous victim, settled $30,000
St. Odilia
Shoreview
Star Tribune
9/20/03
 Garding, 
 William
 SC
Criminal sexual assault
Pled guilty
Served
6 months.
St. John’s
Bluffton
St. Cloud Times
7/26/02
 Gauthier, 
 Raoul
 C
 SC
Charged,
abuse of disabled man
Fled to Canada,
where he
died
St. Michael’s Hospital
Sauk Centre
Star Tribune/AP
12/13/02
St. Cloud Times
12/5/02
 Gillespie, 
 Thomas W.
 SC
 SPM
O.S.B.
On restriction
Alleged abuse
Suit
St. Joseph
St. Joseph
MPR Transcript
7/11/02
CS-2:10
 Greiwe, 
 Edward
 SPM
O.S.C.
Cited for indecent
exposure
Pioneer Park
Blaine
Star Tribune
9/25/02
 Guerrero, 
 Gabriel
 SC
O.S.C.
Multiple victims
Credible claims
Living on restriction
Suit
Crosier Seminary High School
Onamia
Star Tribune
10/10/02
CS-2:7
CS-2:37
 Guetter, 
 Michael A.
 NU
 SPM

Allegations of sexual abuse
St. Paul
Comfrey
Star Tribune
7/1/86
11/6/87
 Gustafson, 
 Gilbert J.
 SPM
Convicted, 1982, pled
guilty, sentenced
6 months; Additional allegations
Suit
St. Mary of the Lake
White Bear Lake
Pioneer Press
5/26/02
CS-2:12
 Hatch,
 Richard E.
 W

Sexual abuse of minor
St. Mary
Winona
CS-V
CS-F
 Heitzer,
 Louis J.
 NU
Alleged abuse
Priest died in 1960’s
St. Peter’s
Forest Lake
Pioneer Press
6/14/02
 Henrich,  
 Rudolph
 NU
 SPM
Sexual abuse
St. Margaret Mary
Golden Valley
CS-2:6
 Hoefgen, 
 Francis
 SC
 SPM
O.S.B.
Settled, admission
Sex abuse
County prosecutor
did not file charges
St. Boniface
Cold Spring
Star Tribune
5/12/02
Grand Forks Herald
5/26/02
Court File
CS-1:5
CS-2:10
 Jeub,
 Richard H.
 SPM

Settled
Alleged abuse of girl, woman
Our Lady of Grace
Edina
Pioneer Press
5/26/02
 Kampa,
 Dennis
 SPM
Sexual abuse
St. Vincent de Paul
Osseo
Court File
CS-1:5
 Kapoun,
 Robert E.
 SPM
$1M Overturned, SOL
Alleged abuse
Resigned priesthood
Multiple victims
St. Raphael’s
Crystal
Star Tribune
8/22/89
4/8/02
CS-2:6,
CS-2:33,
CS-2:34
 Kelly,
 John
 SC
O.S.B.
Alleged abuse
On leave
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
St. Cloud Times
7/6/03
 Kern,
 Jerome C.
 SPM
Alleged abuse
Suit
St. Paul Seminary
St. Paul
Forest Lake Times
10/16/02
Pioneer Press
5/26/02
CS-2:23
 Klein,
 Robert W.
 D
Criminal charges
Criminal sexual conduct – with 4 children
Pled not guilty
Multiple suits
St. Francis
Brainerd
Court Files
Star Tribune
9/19/87
12/2/87
CS-2:3, CS-2:21
CS-2:29, CS-2:30
CS-2:38
 Kolar,
 Michael G.
 SPM
Three suits
Settled
Admission
Catholic Youth Center
St. Paul
Court Files
St. Petersburg Times
9/26/02
CS-1/6
 Krakovsky, 
 Reginald
 NU
 SC
 SPM
T.O.R.
Sued
Alleged abuse
Holy Family
Belle Prairie
Star Tribune
1/21/95
 Krautkremer,  Lee D.
 SPM
Alleged abuse
St. Peter
Forest Lake
 
 Krough,
 Jack L.
 W
Sexual abuse
Removed 2002
St. Stanislaus
Winona
CS-UW
CS-JA
 Kujawa, 
 Richard
 SC
Multiple victims
St. Joseph
Bertha
Court File
CS-1:6, CS-2:34
 Lachner, 
 Anthony J.
 SPM
Sexual exploitation
Suit filed
Home of the Good Shepherd
North Oaks
Court File
Pioneer Press
9/4/91
CS-1:6
 LaVann, 
 Kenneth G.
 SPM
Sexual exploitation
Multiple victims
St. Michael
Guardian Angels
West St. Paul
Oakdale
CS-V
CS-2:23
 Liles,
 Ronan
 SPM
O.P.
Sexual abuse
Multiple victims
Suit
St. Albert the Great
Minneapolis
CS-2:15
CS-2:16
 McDonald, 
 Finian
 SC
O.S.B.
Settled
Alleged abuse
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
Star Tribune
5/12/02
CS-2:4
 NRT
 NU
Sexual abuse
St. Eloi
Ghent
CS-V
 McGrath, 
 Edward F.
 W
Criminal charges
Lewd behavior
Placed on leave
Pax Christi
Rochester
Pioneer Press
5/16/03
 McGrath,
 John E.
 SPM
Sexual battery
Multiple victims
Suits
St. Helena’s
Minneapolis
Pioneer Press
11/3/93
CS-2:11,
CS-2:25
CS-2:33
 Madigan, 
 Gregory
 SC
 SPM
O.S.C.
Multiple victims
Credible claims
Abuse of 14 yr. old boy
Admission
Holy Cross
Onamia
Star Tribune
10/10/02
11/24/02
 Mahon,
 Gerald A.
 W
Two sex abuse cases
One case dropped by accuser
Second case settled for
“small sum”
Priest claims innocence
Immaculate Heart of Mary College Seminary
Winona
Pioneer Press
4/19/95
 Maiers, 
 Brennan
 D
 SC
 SPM
O.S.B.
Alleged abuse
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
Court File
Star Tribune
10/22/92
CS-1:6
 Makowski,
 Mark
 D
Sexual assault
Admission
Criminal trial
Pled guilty to
4th degree
St. John’s
Holy Rosary
Grand Marais
Grand Portage
Duluth News Tribune
11/23/95
 Marks,
 William J.
 NU
 SPM
Suits
Seven confirmed victims
Alleged abuse
St. John’s
St. Clotilde
Hector
Green Valley
Pioneer Press
4/23/94
CS-V
CS-2:4, CS-2:26
CS-2:27, CS-2:34
CS-2:37
 Maxwell,
 Bruce C.
 SC
O.C.S.
Credible claim
Single incident
Living on restriction
Crosier Seminary & Prep School
Onamia
Star Tribune
10/10/02
 Moeglein, 
 James R.
 SC
 SPM
O.S.C.
Multiple victims
Credible claims
Living on restriction
Crosier Seminary & Prep School
Onamia
Star Tribune
10/10/02
 Molina, 
 Antonio P.
 SPM
Sexual assault
No prosecution
Suit - settled
St. Joseph’s Hospital
St. Paul
Star Tribune
10/16/90
 Moorse, 
 Dunstan
 SC
 SPM
O.S.B.
Settled
Alleged abuse, including drugging
students
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
Court File
Star Tribune
9/29/02
CS-1:7
CS-2:5
CS-2/:20
 Nelson,
 Paul E.
 W

Sexual abuse
Cathedral
Winona
CS-2:38
 Nicholson,  
 John R.
 D

Settled
Sexual abuse
Multiple victims
St. Rose
Proctor
Star Tribune
4/13/02
CS-2:38
 Nun,
 Unnamed
 SPM
O.S.U.
Sexual abuse
Villa Maria
Frontenac
Pioneer Press
7/15/02
 Nun,
 Unnamed
 W
S.S.N.D
Sexual abuse 1970’s
Suit settled
Unnamed
grade school
Mankato
Pioneer Press
7/15/02
 Nun,
 Unnamed
 NU
S.S.N.D.
Sexual abuse
Unnamed location
Minnesota
Pioneer Press
7/15/02
 O’Brien, 
 Thomas E.
 SC
 SPM
O.S.C.
Credible claim
Single victim
Doing internal admin. Works in Rome
Crosier Seminary & Prep School

Onamia
Star Tribune
10/10/02
 O’Keefe, 
 Gerald F.
 SPM
Sued, dropped
Alleged abuse of 2 girls
Cathedral
St. Paul
Court Files
Star Tribune
4/4/92
CS-1:7, CS-2:4
 Ohlemacher, 
 Richard N.
 SC
O.S.C.
Credible claims
Living on restriction
Crosier Seminary & Prep School
Onamia
Star Tribune
10/10/02
 Panagoplos, 
 Christopher
 SC
 SPM
T.O.R.
Suit filed
Sexual exploitation
St. Bridget’s
Minneapolis
Court File
Pioneer Press
4/14/92
5/26/02
CS-1:7,
CS-2:25
 Pete,
 Joseph
 W

Sexual exploitation
Immaculate Heart of Mary
Currie
MN Lawyer Magazine
8/25/03
 Perry,
 Bead
 SC
O.S.B.
Sexual exploitation
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
CS-2:2
 Plathe, 
 Anthony N.
 NU
Sexual exploitation
Assignment withheld
City withheld
CS-V
CS-R
 Porter,
 James
 C
Sexual abuse
Multiple victims
Suits
St. Philip’s: 
16 victims
Babysitter
Bemidji
Oakdale
Star Tribune
7/14/92
CS-2:7, CS-2:27
CS-2:32, CS-2:33
CS-2:34, CS-2:35
CS-2:36
 Puhl,
 Dennis A.
 D
Criminal charges, pled guilty,
sexual assault
Sentenced to
5 years’ probation
St. Casimir
Holy Spirit
Cloquet
Virginia
Star Tribune
7/25/92
 Reynolds, 
 Francis J.
 SC
 SPM
Suit filed
Sexual abuse
Priest died in 1987
St. Francis Xavier
Buffalo
Pioneer Press
12/6/91
CS-2:23
 Rieder,
 Donald W.
 SC
Criminal conviction
Sentenced,
1 year
Admission
St. John Cantius
St. Cloud
St. Cloud Times
4/17/03
 Roney,
 David A.
 NU
 SPM
Previous allegations surfaced — 1987
Roney died
in 2003
Multiple suits
At least
8 victims
Sexual abuse
of minors
Sexual exploitation
St. Francis
St. Mary
St. Paul
Benson
Willmar
Walnut Grove
Star Tribune
9/18/03
KARE 11
9/18/03
CS-2:19
CS-2:39
 Ruglovsky, 
 Robert
 N/A
Byzantine priest
Sexual abuse
Multiple victims
Settled
St. John’s Byzantine
Minneapolis
Pioneer Press
8/10/88
 Rush,
 William
 W

Sexual abuse
St. Bridget
Rochester
CS-V
 Ryan,
 Patrick J.
 SPM
Sexual abuse
Guardian Angels
Hastings
CS-V
 Schlosser, 
 Marcene
 D
S.S.N.D.
Settled
Alleged abuse
Schlosser denies allegation
St. Michael’s School
Proctor
Pioneer Press
7/15/02
CS-2:12
 Schulte, 
 Francisco
 SC

O.S.B.
On leave
Alleged abuse
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
St. Cloud Times
10/2/02
 Skoblik, 
 Michael G.
 NU
 SPM
Sexual abuse
Multiple victims
St. Joseph
Silver Lake
CS-1:8, CS-2:29
CS-2:33, CS-2:39
 Smith
 Leland
 W
Sexual abuse
Removed 2002
Assignment withheld
City withheld
CS-UW
 Smith,
 Robert
 SC
Sexual abuse
Assignment withheld
City withheld
CS-2:2
 Stevens, 
 Michael J.
 SPM

Criminal conviction
Pled guilty
No information given in article
N/A
Pioneer Press
5/24/02
5/26/02
 Stuppy, 
 Georgene
 W
Settled
Alleged abuse
Queen of Angels Middle School
Austin
Court File
Pioneer Press
7/15/02
CS-1:8
CS-2:
 Stitts,
 Thomas S.
 SPM
Sued
Alleged abuse
St. Leo
St. Paul
Star Tribune
1/24/95
 Surprenant, 
 John J.
 W
Sexual exploitation
College of
St. Teresa
Winona
Star Tribune
10/30/87
 Tarlton,
 Gilbert Allen
 SC
O.S.B.
On restriction
Abuse, admission
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
Star Tribune
10/22/92
 Tegles,
 Aelred
 SC
 SPM
O.S.B.
Sexual abuse
St. John’s Abbey
Collegeville
CS-JA
 Thoennes, 
 James A.
 SC
Settled
Admitted abuse
Multiple victims
Removed 1993
St. Anthony of Padua
St. John the Evangelist
St. Joseph
St. Cloud
Hopkins
West St. Paul
Court files
St. Cloud Times
6/28/02
10/19/02
Star Tribune
6/25/02
CS-1:8
 Thurner, 
 Robert M.
 SPM
Sued
Alleged Abuse
Resigned
Multiple victims
St. John the Evangelist
St. Joseph
Hopkins
West Saint Paul
Court Files
Star Tribune
12/5/91
12/6/91
CS-2:13
CS-V
 Toporwoicz,
 Stephen
 D
Sexual abuse of minor
St. Joseph
Deerwood
CS-2:23
 Vang,
 Chue Ying
 SPM
Sexual exploitation
St. Vincent de Paul
St. Paul
Court Files
CS-JA
 Van Sloun, 
 Michael
 SPM
O.S.C.
Denied abuse
Cleared by Order
Reinvestigated
Living on restriction
St. Stephen
Anoka
Star Tribune
8/11/02
 Wajda,
 Joseph L.
 SPM
Two suits
Settled
Alleged abuse
St. Raphael’s
Crystal
LA Times
5/19/90
CS-2/10
Star Tribune
8/22/89
CS-2:7
CS-2:27
 Weger,
 Justin
 SC
O.S.C.
Credible claims
Living on restriction
Crosier Seminary & Prep School
Onamia
Star Tribune
10/10/02
 Wifp,
 Gary Lee
 C
Coach and janitor
Sexual Abuse
Conviction
40 year sentence
St. Mary’s Mission School
Red Lake
Associated Press
5/28/03
 Wolski, 
 Adelbert
 SC
 SPM

T.O.R.
Sexual abuse
Cathedral High School
St. Cloud
CS-2:14
 Zasacki,
 Robert E.
 SPM
T.O.R.
Removed from Hopkins church because of allegations
in NJ
St. John the Evangelist
Hopkins
Star Tribune
5/22/02
 
Updated:          03/19/04
 
  Compiled by:    Belinda Martinez,
MNSNAP Survivor Liaison
 Resources:       www.infoweb.newsbank.com
                         www.survivorsfirst.org

Abbreviations:   C – Crookston; D – Duluth; NU – New Ulm; SC – St. Cloud;
 
                          SPM – St. Paul/Minneapolis; W – Winona
                        M.S.F. – Congregation of the Missionaries of the Holy Family
                         O.M.I. – Oblates of Mary Immaculate
                         O.P. – Order of Preachers
                         O.S.B.  – Order of St. Benedict
                         O.S.C. – Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross
                         O.S.U. – Ursaline Sisters of the Roman Union
                         S.S.C. – Society of St. Columban
                         S.S.N.D. – School Sisters of Notre Dame
                         T.O.R. – Third Order Regulars of St. Francis

 





Next Time:  Appendix II of Trembling to the Reckoning

 

 

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